• IN WHAT WAYS CAN IT BE SAID THAT ADVERTISING‘WORKS’ 不要轻易放弃。学习成长的路上,我们长路漫漫,只因学无止境。


      【Abstract】In order to look at in what ways can it be said that advertising ‘works’, this essay describes common measures of advertising and especially the hierarchy of effects and reviews the model of hierarchy of manbetx万博体育登录为您倾心打造最佳娱乐游戏天堂,manbetx体育手机客户端是一个信誉好及富有强烈社会责任感的在线娱乐平台,万博manbetx官网登录游戏是一家成立在欧洲的网上投注公司,manbetx万博体育登录为大家带来一个不需要学费的地方 effects and its developing models. 下载论文网   【Keywords】measures of advertising effectiveness; models of the hierarchy effects   Many scholars discussed the question of advertising effectiveness. As Rogers (1995) mentioned, many advertisements simply do not do what they are intended to do. Wardle (2002) noticed that it is necessary for researchers and practitioners to find a useful way to evaluate it and its effects as advertising is a risky and expensive business. Thus, advertising is not only a communication tool for marketers, but manbetx万博体育登录为您倾心打造最佳娱乐游戏天堂,manbetx体育手机客户端是一个信誉好及富有强烈社会责任感的在线娱乐平台,万博manbetx官网登录游戏是一家成立在欧洲的网上投注公司,manbetx万博体育登录为大家带来一个不需要学费的地方 also should be effective for them.   1. Common Measures of Advertising Effectiveness   When referring to the studies on “advertising works”, it was common for researchers to look at the intended effects of advertising as by understanding what effects of advertising are and evaluating the effects of advertising, it is more likely to enable people to know whether the advertising works. In order to find manbetx万博体育登录为您倾心打造最佳娱乐游戏天堂,manbetx体育手机客户端是一个信誉好及富有强烈社会责任感的在线娱乐平台,万博manbetx官网登录游戏是一家成立在欧洲的网上投注公司,manbetx万博体育登录为大家带来一个不需要学费的地方 efficient ways to know the effects of advertising, researchers contribute much work on this issue and some of approaches were used to measure advertising’s effects. For example, one ordinary approach is to look at the effects on sales, which means we can assess input and output of advertising. According to Tellis (2004), on the input side, advertisers need to know the advertising intensity which means the level of advertising targeted to an audience of consumers. Specifically, three important measures which can be used to assess the advertising intensity are expenditures, share of outlays, exposures. On the other hand, advertising effectiveness can be also measured by assessing output of adverting. For example, one easy way is to measure sales and revenues which can reflect the general outcome of the advertising. However, although this is the common approach to measure advertising effectiveness, there are problems about it. For example, when we look at sales, one problem is that consumers may have various reasons when they buy a product, therefore, we cannot assure whether consumers buy the products for advertising or for other reasons such as for recommendation from friends.   In addition to measure of sales, another classic model that will be discussed here is the hierarchy of effects. Many researchers have mentioned the reasons why people discussed the hierarchy of effects. According to Weilbacher (2001), advertising is generally seen as a means of communication to persuade consumers and the advertising is effective only if the communication process is successful and the successful process leads to increasing sales of products or services. Weilbacher (2001) explained advertising further by mentioning that advertising must cause some kind of mental change in consumers’ mind. The reason that Weilbacher explained the concept in detail is to educe that the nature of advertising communication process is "hierarchy of advertising effects." In this case, advertising, therefore, is constructed to achieve particular responses from consumers according to the nature of the communications and marketing objectives desired (Vaughn 1980; Rossiter et al. 1991). Additionally, from Tellis (2004)’s perspective, many researchers suggested that the effects of advertising are related in a sequential chain therefore responses on variables such as cognitive, affective are interacting, and the sequential chain is the hierarchy of effects.   The model is useful for various reasons. Firstly, more understanding about hierarchical processes is more helpful for people to predict behavior (Preston and Thorson, 1983). Moreover, as Lavidge and Steiner (1961) suggested, the model helps a lot in terms of making advertising strategies on specific movements. For example, at the awareness stage, the special slogan can be designed to attract attention of individuals. Additionally, in order to make people prefer the products, advertisements that emphasize competitive advantages can be created. In addition to making advertising focus on different steps, the hierarchy of effects is also beneficial to conducting advertising research. For instance, surveys can be made to examine advertising and brand awareness. Besides, some qualitative research can be conducted to compare advertisements from different companies to find relative advantages.   3. The Critical Review of Hierarchy of Effects Model and the Developing Models   Although the hierarchy of effects model has many advantages, it also has some weakness. According to Barry and Howard (1990), one problem is that it is difficult to define the cognition and affect, and difference between them. They also mentioned that the main issue is that it is hard to know which stage will begin at any time or another finishes at some time. This problem will reduce the function that model brings. Specifically, it will be not that easy to choose suitable research because of unclear sequential stages. Moreover, the hierarchy models of advertising effects are very simple but consumers must face a large amount of information and have much experience when they expose to advertising (Weilbacher, 2001). One more critical view is that the assumption of the model is that all advertising has same effects (ibid). However, in modern society, a variety of advertisements are produced every day, which means different advertisements may cause different effects. Another usual referred shortcoming it that this model only concerns with advertising which is only one form of marketing communications (ibid).   After the Lavidge-Steiner model, researchers continued to propose and develop many models. Ray (1973) claims that under different situations that people involve, there should be more than one hierarchy model. Since then, it is reported by Vaughn (1980) that the traditional model with cognitive, affective, conative is inadequate, adding other three models by arguing the sequence of initial model. Specifically, the traditional model only contains one type of consumption such as consuming cars because when buying this kind of products, consumers may be highly-involved therefore go through the three stages from cognitive, affective, and conative. However, there are other situations that consumers may involve. For example, some consumers may firstly buy some products without knowing and understanding the product, after purchasing the products, they begin to learn the information and then they develop attitudes and feelings upon the products. In this case, the sequence of the model should be conative, cognitive, and finally affective. Other two models are cognitive, conative, affective, and affective, cognitive, conative. Similarly, Tellis (2004) mentions that a variety of hierarchies could be categorized into three genres which are learning hierarchy including cognitive, affective, conative, and dissonance or attribution hierarchy that passes through purchase, liking, rationalization, brand repurchase, low involvement hierarchy which may go through the steps of trial, recognition, recall and liking. Additionally, by reviewing a large number of prior literature and models, Ambler and Vakratsas (1999) propose that advertising should be studied and evaluated in a space with three dimensions which are affect, cognition, and experience, and the positioning of advertising in the space should be determined according to context such as product category, other components of marketing mix.   4. Discussion and conclusion   When referring to whether advertising is effective and works, it cannot be denied that the hierarchy of effects plays an important role. The model offers effective ways to evaluate how advertising works and whether it works according to a series steps that consumers go through. For example, in the realm of conative, the advertising works in the way that the advertisements designed to produce effects on moving consumers up to certain purchase. However, it can also be concluded context of advertisements, products, brands, and consumers are important when we discuss advertising and evaluate how it works. Consumers face different situation and have different experiences, it is hard to simply define that human behaviors and mind work in one sequence. This is also why researchers continuously develop models and theory. For further research, as marketers are more likely to regard advertising as only one form of integrated communications, therefore we can do more research into effects on consumer of integrated marketing communications including advertising (Weilbacher, 2001).   References:   [1]Ambler, T., Vakratsas, D., 1996. The Pursuit of Advertising Theory. London Business School Business Strategy Review, 7(1), 16.   [2]Barry, T.E. and Howard, D.J., 1990. A review and critique of the hierarchy of effects in advertising. Internatioal . Journal of Advertising, 9: 121-135.   [3]Lavidge, R.J., and Steiner, G.A., 1961. A model for predictive measurements of advertising effectiveness. Journal of Marketing, 25(6), 59-62.   [4]Preston, I. L. and Thorson, E., 1983. Challenges to the use of hierarchy models in predicting advertising effectiveness. Proceedings of the Annual Convention of American Academy of Advertising, 27-33.   [5]Rossiter, J.R, Percy, L. & Donovan, R.J. (1991) A better advertising planning grid. Journal of Advertising Research, 31(5), pp. 11?C21.   [6]Ray, M.L, 1974. Consumer Initial Processing: Definitions, Issues, and Applications, In: Buyer/Consumer Information Processing, eds. G, David Hughes and Michael L. Ray. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 14S.56.   [7]Rogers, S.C., (1995), How to create advertising that works. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 10(2):20 ?C 33   [8]Tellis, G.J., 2004., Effective advertising: understanding when, how, and why advertising works. London: Sage.   [9]Vaughn, R., 1980. How advertising works: a planning model. Journal of Advertising, 20(5), 27?C33.   [10]Wardle, J., 2002. Developing advertising with qualitative market research. London: Sage.   [11]Weilbacher, W.M., 2001. Point of View: Does Advertising Cause a "Hierarchy of Effects"? Journal of Advertising Research. 41(6), 19-26.   作者简介:冯曦,女,1989年12月生,四川彭山人,四川大学锦江学院管理学院老师,研究标的目的:市场营销。


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